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Facts about Obesity and related disorders
Obesityis a medical condition associated with accumulation of excess fat in the body, which in turn can have negative effects on health. Obesity predisposes or increases the chances of a person developing certaindiseases like heartdisease,hypertension, type2 diabetes,hypercholesterolemia, obstructivesleep apnea,polycystic ovarian syndrome, certain types of cancer,and osteoarthritis.Obesityis most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake,lack of physical activity, and geneticsusceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily endocrinedisorders, medications,or mentalillness.Body mass index – BMI ( calculated from a person’s weight andheight) is a physical measurement that is commonly used to assessthe extent of obesity. A person with a BMI of 25 – 30 is said to beoverweight, while one above 30 is considered obese.
Whena person has a BMI of more than 40, he/she is said to have morbidobesity. Morbid obesity increases the risks of developing multiplediseases as mentioned earlier. Obesity can be prevented by a properlifestyle and the main treatment revolves around proper dietary andlifestyle changes. Surgical treatment is recommended in those whohave failed to respond to dietary and lifestyle changes.
Whocan undergo Obesity surgery
BMI ≥ 40, or more than 100 pounds overweight.
BMI ≥35 and at least two obesity-related co-morbidities such as type II diabetes (T2DM), hypertension, sleep apnea and other respiratory disorders, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis, lipid abnormalities, gastrointestinal disorders, or heart disease.
Patients who have not found benefit with other medical weight reduction techniques
The person should have been obese for a continuous 3 to 5 years
The person has to be psychologically sound
Managementof Obesity and related disorders
Onceyou have been diagnosed with Obesity and if have other obesityrelated diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus or ObstructiveSleep apnoea, your doctor would advise you on a diet plan to shedexcess calories, along with appropriate exercise routine as well.Meanwhile you will also be suggested blood tests to look for otherendocrine or metabolic causes of weight gain like hypothyroidism orsteroid imbalances.
Yourdoctor would reassess you after a certain period of dietarymodification and exercise routines. If you have not found significantbenefit from these and if your blood tests are within normal limits,based on your BMI your doctor would suggest the appropriate surgicaltreatment necessary.
Bariatricsurgicalprocedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount offood the stomach can hold, causing malabsorption of nutrients, or bya combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption.Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weightloss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasivetechniques
Themost common bariatric surgery procedures are adjustable gastric band,sleeve gastrectomy gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion withduodenal switch.
TheAdjustable Gastric Band – often called theband –involves an inflatable band that is placed around the upper portionof the stomach, creating a small stomach pouch above the band, andthe rest of the stomach below the band
TheLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy – often called the sleeve – isperformed by removing approximately 80 percent of the stomach. Theremaining stomach is a tubular pouch that resembles a banana
TheRoux-en-Y Gastric Bypass – often called gastric bypass – isconsidered the ‘gold standard’ of weight loss surgery.
Thereare two components to the procedure. First, a small stomach pouch,approximately one ounce or 30 milliliters in volume, is created bydividing the top of the stomach from the rest of the stomach. A partof the small intestine is connected to this part of the stomachbypassing a significant length of small intestine.
BiliopancreaticDiversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS) Gastric Bypass
TheBiliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch – abbreviated asBPD/DS – is a procedure with two components. First, a smaller,tubular stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of thestomach, very similar to the sleeve gastrectomy. Next, a largeportion of the small intestine is bypassed.
Allthese procedures are performed by the laparoscopic method and areassociated with weight loss in the range of 40 – 70% over a periodof 2- 3 years. Each type of procedure has its own advantages anddisadvantages and your surgeon will select the procedure that suitsyou based on your age and physical fitness levels.
Benefitsof Bariatric Surgery
Whencombined with a comprehensive treatment plan, bariatric surgery mayoften act as an effective tool to provide you with long termweight-loss and help you increase your quality of health. Bariatricsurgery has been shown to help improve or resolve manyobesity-related conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, high bloodpressure, heart disease, and more. Frequently, individuals whoimprove their weight find themselves taking less and less medicationsto treat their obesity-related conditions.
Significantweight loss through bariatric surgery may also pave the way for manyother exciting opportunities for you, your family, and mostimportantly – your health